Long-Term Outcomes of Treatment of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Data from an Observational Study
Purpose: To analyze the long-term outcomes of eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) starting treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors at least 5 years earlier.
Design: Database observational study.
Participants: Treatment-naïve eyes with neovascular AMD tracked by the Fight Retinal Blindness outcome registry that received at least 1 anti-VEGF injection.
Methods: Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing curves were used to display visual acuity (VA) results.
Main outcome measures: Change in mean VA and number of injections and visits from baseline up to 7 years after initiating treatment.
Results: The mean follow-up time of all 1212 identified eyes was 53.5 months, and 549 (45%) continued attending after 60 months. Mean VA improved from 55.1 to 61.4 letters after 6 months and remained above the mean presenting VA for approximately 6 years. After 7 years, mean VA was 2.6 letters lower than baseline for the 131 eyes still being followed; 40% had VA ≥70 (20/40) letters, and 18% had VA ≤35 letters (20/200). Of those with 20/40 VA before treatment, 40% had lost it after 7 years. Geographic atrophy affecting the fovea was thought to be the cause of a ≥10-letter loss after 6.5 years in 37% of a subset of such eyes that were retrospectively analyzed. A median of 6 injections and 9 visits were recorded over the first 12 months, and then 5 treatments and 7 to 9 visits per annum thereafter through 7 years. Treatment was discontinued for 663 eyes (53%) within the first 5 years. Despite initial gains in vision, the mean VA of these eyes had deteriorated to baseline or worse around the time treatment was discontinued. The rate of serious adverse events was low.
Conclusions: Good long-term outcomes of VEGF inhibition for neovascular AMD were found in this study. These results may be better than other reports because more injections were given to our patients, possibly associated with a greater incentive for the physician to treat. Further studies to determine how to maximize the proportion of eyes that retain the initial VA gains of anti-VEGF are warranted.